Administering first aid to an injured person at home before an ambulance arrives

Administering first aid to an injured person at home before an ambulance arrives

If there is bleeding

  • Put a clean plastic bag over your hands to prevent them coming into direct contact with blood.
  • If an injury is bleeding, cover the wound with a clean handkerchief and press down gently from above.

If an injured person is unresponsive

  • Tilt the injured person’s head back to keep their airway clear and turn them on their side. If possible, wipe away any blood and mucus in their mouth.


  • Rinse the burn with running tap water to cool it until the pain subsides.
  • Do not apply ointment or any other medicine to the burn.

Toxic gas inhalation

  • Lie the injured person down in fresh air, even in cases of mild poisoning.
  • If the injured person has fainted, put them in the recovery position (see “If an injured person is unresponsive.”)

Drowning (Injured person has stopped breathing)

  • If the injured person is unresponsive and is not breathing normally, use CPR immediately.
    Do not press down forcibly on the injured person’s abdomen. There is no need to make them spit out any water. If the person vomits, turn their head to the side. Keep their mouth clear and continue with CPR.

Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

  • Turn over the injured person onto their back.
  • Gently lift the injured person’s chin (to open their airway).
  • Cover the injured person’s mouth completely, pinch their nose and make sure no air leaks out. Breathe out gently, exhaling until the person’s chest rises slightly.
  • Blow gently on the first breath. If the injured person’s chest returns to its original position, blow air in again for the second time.

Cardiac massage (Injured person is unresponsive and breathing normally)

  • Press down on the middle of the injured person’s chest 30 times for adults, children and infants.
  • Press down so that the chest sinks by at least 5cm; for children and infants, press down by approximately one-third of the depth of the chest.
  • Press down at least 100 times a minute for adults, children and infants.
  • Alternate repeatedly with artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth).
  • Continue until medical assistance arrives.